Conducting a literature review: example table of articles found from your search strategy

Conducting a literature review: example table of articles found from your search strategy

Once you have found all the articles relevant to the topic, review them and record your findings in a table like the ones below. This will make it easy to pick out the themes and write your discussion, as well as identifying failings in research method making the articles less reliable.

 

 

 

Study: Craun SW and Bourke ML (2014) The Use of Humor to Cope with Secondary Traumatic Stress. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse 23(7): 840–852.

 

Aim Type of Methodology

 

Themes identified

(eg staff or patients)

Finding Strengths/ Weaknesses of Method

 

 

 

Magazine Article: Brown A-L (2015) Laughter is the best medicine: from clown doctor to occupational therapist. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal 62(6): 29–29.

 

Aim Type of Methodology

 

Themes identified

(eg staff or patients)

Finding Strengths/ Weaknesses of Method

 

 

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Article review: “Clinical governance and the drive for quality improvement in the new NHS in England” by Scally & Donaldson (1998)

Article review: “Clinical governance and the drive for quality improvement in the new NHS in England” by Scally & Donaldson (1998)

Scally and Donaldson are best friends who fight crime in the in King’s Lynn area in their spare time. Scally is street smart whereas Donaldson is book smart. Their adventures always reveal a moral lesson about the importance of compromise in teamwork.

double-act-otters
Double act: Scally & Donaldson

In 1997 (two decades ago now!) the Government issued guidance that health organisations now had a duty to improve quality rather than just attain financial and activity targets. This was in response to concerns that the Tory ‘marketplace model’ for the NHS had led to price being more important that quality of care. They were to improve quality through clinical governance.

“Clinical governance is being held accountable for continuously improving the quality of services, which safeguards high standards of care”

On a practical level clinical governance can be split into the areas of: Read more

Focusing on Occupation: looking at some OT News articles

Focusing on Occupation: looking at some OT News articles

Adapting recipes
People with LD struggle with more complex or abstract elements of recipes, and recipes often assume certain knowledge such as preheating the oven or how to prepare the vegetables. The OT devised a cook book specially for LD that they could follow easily. They involved different experts to consult on areas outside of her expertise, eg food safety or nutrition.
An OT by another name?
An OT is based at carpal tunnel syndrome clinic, and is performing surgical procedures such as steroid injections usually carried out by nurses. Blurring of the traditional OT role scope…. but OT cannot prescribe so she needs a prescription authorised by another health professional before she can carry out injections. Benefit of the role is that it increases access for patients to this treatment. Patients can discuss treatment and leave feedback on an innovative website, which also has a self-diagnosis questionnaire for CTS. (www.carpal-tunnel.net)
From OT to case manager
Ot went from to spinal injury case manager. She used her transferable skills as discharge planner to organise care for spinal injury patients. It involves a lot of liaising with other agencies such as DWP, councils, etc, and beiong able to advocate on the patients’ behalf if they re vulnerable (eg homeless, MH).
Let me in
Self-care is not just hygiene, it has therapeutic benefits like motivation, self-soothing and confidence. In a MH inptaient ward, should males be allowed to join in on female self-care sessions? Do they have a right to that as an occupation, or is it ruining the safe space for females to discuss their bodies without judgement? Self care is large part of our daily routine and intrinsically linked to our sense of self and confidence.

Discussion points

  • –What did you learn?
  • –What did you want to know more about?
  • –What is the innovative element?
  • –Why is it needed?
  • –What added value comes from occupational therapy involvement?
  • –Has an occupational perspective shaped the innovation? To what extent?

 

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References- articles from OT News magazine

Delaney K (2014) Adapting recipes. OT News July, 38-39

Kaile E (2014) An OT by another name? OT News November, 30-31

Newland J (2014) From OT to case manager. OT News November, 30-31

Vickerstaffe R (2014) Let me in. OT News. July, 40

 

 

Article review: “Articulating an Occupational Perspective” by Njelesani et al (2014)

Article review: “Articulating an Occupational Perspective” by Njelesani et al (2014)

This article investigated uses of the term “occupational perspective” in order to clarify a standard definition for use in occupational science. This should make it easier to apply occupational science research findings in practice, the authors argue. In the end they came up with

“a way of looking at or thinking about human doing”

What is an occupational perspective then? According to the authors it’s not an occupational therapy perspective, since this term was one of the exclusion criteria in the Method section. The authors describe in the Findings the term as being used in relation to employment until the 90s when it became associated with Occupational Therapy and Occupational Science.  Research investigating it is mainly qualitative suggesting it is something abstract perhaps also explaining why there were so many different interpretations of the term in the articles Njelesani et al (2014) shortlisted. The research on occupational perspective covered a wide variety of client populations indicating it’s a concept that applies to all people with disabilities/illness.

detective-otter

Read more

Article review: “Therapeutic Use of Humor: Occupational Therapy Clinicians’ Perceptions and Practices” by Leber & Vanoli (2001)

Article review: “Therapeutic Use of Humor: Occupational Therapy Clinicians’ Perceptions and Practices” by Leber & Vanoli (2001)

This study aimed to see how OTs in America used humour, according to Vergeer & MacRae (1993)’s sixteen uses of humour they found in their study. These uses are things like as an equalizer, as assessment/treatment tool, coping strategy. Leber & Vanoli say there is a lack of information about how health professionals use humour (there is some, but with regards to OT there isn’t a lot at all).
i-said-good-day
 Leber & Vanoli did this by sending out surveys to OTs who are registered with AOTA. They found that generally OTs thought humour was important to use but that there was no training on it. The more experienced an OT was (longer years in practice) the more likely they were to use humour, suggesting confidence increased its use.
OT is uniquely placed to use humour in a planned way as it is concerned with client-centred, individual and holistic care (not just physical care with humour is an adjunct in order to provide good bedside manner), and it is concerned with everyday occupations of which humour is part of everyday life and very personal. Humour can be used to make interventions which involve pre-skills more meaningful and client centred- it is assumed the total skills themselves will be meaningful as they are ADLs.
Limitations were that only OTs who were register with AOTA were contacted, not others or retired OTs. It also lacked an investigation of cultural impacts.
Possible areas to investigate further are whether training  helps increase use of humour or make interventions more client centred?
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References
Leber D and Vanoli E (2001) Therapeutic Use of Humor: Occupational Therapy Clinicians’ Perceptions and Practices. American Journal of Occupational Therapy 55(2): 221-226.
Article review: “Rethinking reflective education: What would Dewey have done?” by Rolfe (2014)

Article review: “Rethinking reflective education: What would Dewey have done?” by Rolfe (2014)

Rolfe (2014) goes straight for the jugular and says that reflective practice has failed to become an everyday part of healthcare practice (and as a result failed to improve it), and that this is the fault of managers and educators as well as practising therapists.umm not sure otter

He thinks reflection has been misunderstood- it’s really how we DO reflection-in-action (Schön 1987), not how we WRITE about reflection-on-action after the fact using structured models. Rolfe says believing that reflection-on-action is reflection is how managers/educators/therapists have misapplied it. they should be focusing on reflection-in-action, the bit that Schön thought reflection actually was anyway.

So most reflection takes place at a desk with pen and paper after the event, whereas the people who ‘invented’ it thought it was more reflecting with the situation while you were in it. If you’re rationalising things afterwards it’s the same as a technician carrying out research recommendations, which is fine if it’s an easy patient “tame problem” but if it’s a complicated “wicked problem” which is complex and unique and cant be applied to other previous situations… it’s not much use.

Fish & Coles (1998) also looked at clinical judgement in relation to reflection and tame/wicked cases (except they called them technical rationality and professional artistry). Technical rationality/tame problem are being a drummer in a pop band- following predictable formulaic beat patterns from instructions that already exist; whereas wicked problems requiring professional artistry are like a saxophonist in an improvised jazz ensemble- you’ve got to play along in harmony to sounds you haven’t heard before or will hear again. It is like being a mini-researcher experimenting on small scale on individual case in the moment, rather than carrying out actions based on existing research done by someone else.

 

Being taught in a classroom doesn’t allow you to experience the complex wicked problems of the real world and the associated reflection-in-action. Rolfe therefore sees the current classroom method as an inefficient way of training healthcare professionals and he thinks apprenticeships -which involve more exposure to practical elements than placements do- would be better.

Should students be exposed to tame or wicked problems in their learning? Schell & Schell (2008) said a series of similar tame problems are helpful so a student can recognise patterns and build up a repertoire of ‘answer templates’ to problems. Solving wicked problems happens when one can piece together tame problems relevant to the complex one. It can be seen that the student/novice needs to have tame solutions down to pat first before they can successfully solve wicked problems.

Standing on the shoulders of giants- learning something by building on the existing knowledge/experiences others (Sir Issac Newton)

Rolfe stresses that this opinionated article isn’t written as fact, but a one-sided opinion in order the stimulate a response and a debate. He thinks that more opinion pieces and proposed hypotheses for complex problems should be included in professional journals and not just research studies, because it would create official debate in order to decide which new areas needed research.

 

 

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Reference

Fish D and Coles C (1998) “Professionalism eroded: professionals under siege” In Fish and Coles (editors) Developing professional judgement in health care: learning through the critical appreciation of practice. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann
Rolfe G (2014) Rethinking reflective education: What would Dewey have done? Nurse Education Today 34(8): 1179–1183.
Schell BAB and Schell JW (2008) Clinical and Professional Reasoning in Occupational Therapy. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Schön D (1987) Educating the reflective practitioner (1st edition). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Article review: “A qualitative study of views on disability and expectations from community rehabilitation service users” by Kulnik & Nikoletou (2017)

Article review: “A qualitative study of views on disability and expectations from community rehabilitation service users” by Kulnik & Nikoletou (2017)

In this study Kulnik and Nikoletou (2017) discuss two opposing ways of viewing disability- the social model of disability and the individual-medical model. The former sees the restrictions of the environment and society as the barrier to performance, whereas the latter regards the physical impairments of the person as causing the limitations in performance.

otter-on-crutches

They propose that whichever model a therapist most aligns with will shape the treatment they provide, through the clinical reasoning and goals they set encourage the client to set. From interviews with disabled clients, they found four key themes. These were

  1. talking about the term ‘disability’
    • clients were uncomfortable using the label of disabled, and described the term in a third person way rather than as relevant to themselves
    • it was described as… the inability to do things for yourself and therefore reliance on others
    • clients’ views of disability aligned with the individual-medical model
  2. experience of disability and ageing
    • these were generally viewed as frightening and negative experiences
  3. difficulties with the social model way of thinking
    • clients did not interpret their situation in a political/social model way
    • they often viewed health professionals as acting out of self-interest and not helping the disabled people they are meant to serve
    • they described inadequate resources and systems (eg adaptive equipment and reductions in personal care assistance) as making their disabled situation worse
  4. expectations of clients from community rehab programs
    • clients had limited general knowledge of what to expect from community rehab, and any knowledge was based on previous personal experience
    • rehabilitation was associated with institutional settings

Factors influencing these themes are that the government is shifting towards the client being an empowered consumer rather than a passive patient, in which case community rehab (including any OT services!) would need to raise its profile so the ‘consumers’ were aware of it as a potential choice.

Criticisms of the study

With this study it should be noted the subjects were all older adults with acquired disabilities although they were from a variety of cultures and types of disability (mental and physical) which is good. The sample size was small at 10 people, however with phenomenology a smaller sample is needed “quality over quantity” since each person’s narrative is studied in such depth.  If people had disabilities from birth eg CP they may view themselves as more aligned with the social model of disability and not feel the need to justify having assistance provided to them. Another criticism is that in the introduction the authors discuss how the disability models would affect OTs’ practice but this is not addressed again in the rest of the study- would be an area for future research investigation.

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References

Kulnik ST and Nikoletou D (2017) A qualitative study of views on disability and expectations from community rehabilitation service users. Health & Social Care in the Community 25(1): 43–53. Online at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/hsc.12180/full